Introduction of Civil Engineering | Roles & Scopes of Civil Engineering | 2022

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Definition of Engineering

  • Engineering is the application of science for the fulfilment  of need  and betterment of people by use of material, machinery and  other resources.
  • It is mainly concerned with designing, fabricating,  erecting, manufacturing, installing, operating, controlling,  maintaining and so on.
  • There are different branches of engineering i.e. Civil, Mechanical, Electrical, Computer, IC, Information technology, Mining, Marine, Textile, Agriculture, Electronics  and communication and so on.

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Civil Engineering

  • Civil Engineering is concerned with planning, designing and  construction for environmental  control,  development of natural resources, buildings,  transportation facilities and other structures  required for public utility.
  • It includes structures like Buildings, Roads, Railways, Bridges, Tunnels, Channels, Dams, Ports, Harbors, Airports and many others.
  • The materials used for construction of these structures are Steel, Concrete, wood and so on.

Civil Engineer

  • Civil Engineer is the one who plans, designs, analyze and maintains works of public utility.
  • He should be imaginative, analytic, problem solving,  and  decision maker.

Branches of Civil Engineering

The branches of civil engineering are: –

  1. Surveying and Levelling: –
  • Surveying includes measuring of distance and angles in horizontal  planes.
  • Chain, tape, compass level and theodolite are the instruments used for measurements.
  • It fixes the relative positions of different points on the surface of the  earth.
  • It also includes measurements of areas and volumes.
  • Basic aim is to prepare a map of the area to some scale.
  • Levelling includes measurement of heights in vertical planes.
  • In todays technology, it is done using Geographical positioning system  (GPS) and Geographical Information System (GIS).
  • Advanced ConstructionStructural EngineeringGeotechnical EngineeringWater Resource EngineeringTransportation EngineeringEnvironmental EngineeringTown Planning and so  on.

2. Building Planning and Construction: –

  • Civil Engineers construct many type of structures but it is mainly  buildings.
  • Buildings are built according to the fundamental principles of planning  and local municipal bodies by laws.

Main components of building are foundation,masonry, doors, windows,  stairs,  floors, roofs and many other.

Material like brick, stone, lime, cement, sand, aggregate, mortar,  concrete, steel, wood, tiles, glass, plastic etc.


Scopes of Civil Engineering

The main scope is of civil engineering are: –

  • Planning
  • Designing
  • Estimating
  • Supervising
  • Construction Managing
  • Execution of Construction and
  • Maintenance of older structures.

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Roles of Civil Engineers

  • To use scientific and engineering principles for economical and technical  solutions for different engineering problems.
  • Main role is surveying, planning, designing, estimation and execution of structures  like buildings, roads, bridges, railways, ports, airports, dams, canals, water and  waste water treatment plants, water distribution and sewage system.
  • To solve different engineering problems with the help of field experience, lab  techniques, numerical methods, mathematical models and using computer  technology.
  • To implement management techniques for the better management of man,  machines, material and money.
  • To calculate boundaries of plots, area/volume, fix alignment and so on by  surveying and levelling.
  • To carry out soil investigation for the design of foundations.
  • To plan buildings according to the bylaws of local bodies like  municipalities and get their construction approval.
  • To carry out design of structures as per the principles of structural  analysis and design to ensure its safe, durable and economic.
  • To prepare estimate cost of completion of work of the project.
  • To invite tenders and select contractor for work.
  • To supervise the work during the execution of the project.
  • To maintain public health and also the environment.
  • To carry out valuation of land or building for purpose of finding its  sale or purchase price.

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