Introduction of Civil Engineering | Roles & Scopes of Civil Engineering | 2022
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Definition of Engineering
- Engineering is the application of science for the fulfilment of need and betterment of people by use of material, machinery and other resources.
- It is mainly concerned with designing, fabricating, erecting, manufacturing, installing, operating, controlling, maintaining and so on.
- There are different branches of engineering i.e. Civil, Mechanical, Electrical, Computer, IC, Information technology, Mining, Marine, Textile, Agriculture, Electronics and communication and so on.
- Civil Engineering is concerned with planning, designing and construction for environmental control, development of natural resources, buildings, transportation facilities and other structures required for public utility.
- It includes structures like Buildings, Roads, Railways, Bridges, Tunnels, Channels, Dams, Ports, Harbors, Airports and many others.
- The materials used for construction of these structures are Steel, Concrete, wood and so on.
- Civil Engineer is the one who plans, designs, analyze and maintains works of public utility.
- He should be imaginative, analytic, problem solving, and decision maker.
Branches of Civil Engineering
The branches of civil engineering are: –
- Surveying and Levelling: –
- Surveying includes measuring of distance and angles in horizontal planes.
- Chain, tape, compass level and theodolite are the instruments used for measurements.
- It fixes the relative positions of different points on the surface of the earth.
- It also includes measurements of areas and volumes.
- Basic aim is to prepare a map of the area to some scale.
- Levelling includes measurement of heights in vertical planes.
- In todays technology, it is done using Geographical positioning system (GPS) and Geographical Information System (GIS).
- Advanced ConstructionStructural EngineeringGeotechnical EngineeringWater Resource EngineeringTransportation EngineeringEnvironmental EngineeringTown Planning and so on.
2. Building Planning and Construction: –
- Civil Engineers construct many type of structures but it is mainly buildings.
- Buildings are built according to the fundamental principles of planning and local municipal bodies by laws.
Main components of building are foundation,masonry, doors, windows, stairs, floors, roofs and many other.
Material like brick, stone, lime, cement, sand, aggregate, mortar, concrete, steel, wood, tiles, glass, plastic etc.
Scopes of Civil Engineering
The main scope is of civil engineering are: –
- Construction Managing
- Execution of Construction and
- Maintenance of older structures.
Roles of Civil Engineers
- To use scientific and engineering principles for economical and technical solutions for different engineering problems.
- Main role is surveying, planning, designing, estimation and execution of structures like buildings, roads, bridges, railways, ports, airports, dams, canals, water and waste water treatment plants, water distribution and sewage system.
- To solve different engineering problems with the help of field experience, lab techniques, numerical methods, mathematical models and using computer technology.
- To implement management techniques for the better management of man, machines, material and money.
- To calculate boundaries of plots, area/volume, fix alignment and so on by surveying and levelling.
- To carry out soil investigation for the design of foundations.
- To plan buildings according to the bylaws of local bodies like municipalities and get their construction approval.
- To carry out design of structures as per the principles of structural analysis and design to ensure its safe, durable and economic.
- To prepare estimate cost of completion of work of the project.
- To invite tenders and select contractor for work.
- To supervise the work during the execution of the project.
- To maintain public health and also the environment.
- To carry out valuation of land or building for purpose of finding its sale or purchase price.